Lovers of red meat have been dealt a big blow as a new study, published in the journal Gut, links the consumption of red meat to an increased risk of developing diverticulitis.
Diverticulitis is a relatively common complaint that occurs when bulging sacs appear in the lining of the intestine. These pockets can become infected or inflamed, leading to symptoms such as nausea and fever, constipation and/or diarrhea, cramping, and pain in the abdomen.
Approximately, four percent of people with diverticulitis go on to develop severe or long-term complications, including abscesses, perforations in the gastrointestinal tract, and fistulas, which are abnormal connections between the hollow spaces of the body.
More recent data suggest that up to 50 per cent of individuals older than 60 years of age have colonic diverticula, with 10 per cent to 25 per cent developing complications such as diverticulitis. Hospitalizations for diverticular disease have also been on the rise.
According to an American study evaluating hospitalization rates between 1998 and 2005, rates of admission for diverticular disease increased by 26 per cent during the eight-year study period. Similar trends have been observed in Canadian and European data over the same time period.
Worryingly, the number of new cases appears to be rising, particularly among younger individuals.
Known risk factors include using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), a sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and smoking. However, despite the high number of cases, a full range of causes has not yet been described.
Although low levels of fiber intake are thought to play a role, dietary influences on diverticulitis had not been examined thoroughly.
Recently, a team led by Dr. Andrew Chan - from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, United States of America (USA), set out to investigate dietary factors involved in diverticulitis in more detail. They specifically focused on the consumption of meat, poultry, and fish in 46,500 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.
The participants were aged 40-75 when they joined the study between 1986-2012. Every four years, the men were asked how often they had eaten standard portions of red meat, poultry, and fish over the preceding 12 months. The responses were given using a 9-point scale, ranging from “never” or “less than once a month” to “six or more times a day.” Over the 26-year study period, 764 men developed diverticulitis.
Participants who ate higher quantities of red meat were also more likely to have used NSAIDs and painkillers, smoked more, exercised less, and consumed less dietary fiber.
Conversely, individuals who ate more fish and poultry were more likely to take aspirin, smoke less, and exercise vigorously more often.
Although these differences were clear, a significant effect was still observed once they had been accounted for: total red meat intake was associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis. Perhaps surprisingly, this association was not influenced by age or weight.
When those consuming the least red meat were compared with those consuming the highest quantities, a 58 per cent increased risk of developing diverticulitis was found. Each daily serving was associated with an 18 percent increased risk, peaking at six portions per week.
The strongest links were found with unprocessed meats; swapping just one daily portion with poultry or fish was associated with a 20 percent reduction in risk. The authors conclude: “Our findings may provide practical dietary guidance for patients at risk of diverticulitis, a common disease of huge economic and clinical burden.”
The next question to ask is why red meat consumption might increase diverticulitis risk. Further research will be necessary to answer this query, but there are some theories in circulation.